The transition of the transport sector is still at its beginning. Several possible vehicle concepts are currently part of the discussion about what mobility will look like in the future, for instance battery electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), or synthetic fuels. Systemic research at the Reiner Lemoine Institut (RLI) shows that all of these technologies have specific advantages and disadvantages. We have modelled and compared several future scenarios for the German transport sector with an energy supply setting consisting of 100 % renewable energy. Our scenarios consider BEV and FCEV individual mobility and several flexibility options, such as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and time-flexible charging.
Our analyses show that the need for additional energy for mobility can be significantly reduced if flexibility of the BEVs is increased. Furthermore, required storage capacities can be significantly reduced if V2G is available. V2G also induces a technology shift from off-shore wind to less expensive Photovoltaics.